Male Infertility: Causes, Tests and Treatment

Male infertility is a common problem. The process of conception is challenging and fraught with difficulties. Fortunately, having infertility problems does not exclude you from having a kid of your own with your spouse. There are procedures and therapies that can raise the likelihood of conception.

male infertility

In this article, we will explore the causes, tests and treatment of male infertility.

Male Infertility – FAQs & Answers

Can male infertility be cured?

In many cases, male infertility can be managed or treated, allowing couples to conceive. However, the success of treatment depends on the underlying cause and individual case.

Does age affect male fertility?

Yes, age can affect male fertility, with sperm quality and quantity decreasing with age.

Can male infertility be genetic?

Yes, male infertility can be caused by genetic conditions, such as Klinefelter syndrome and Y chromosome deletions.

What is male infertility?

Male infertility refers to the inability of a man to achieve pregnancy or father a child with his female partner due to factors related to his reproductive system. It is typically diagnosed when a couple has been unsuccessfully trying to conceive for at least one year through regular, unprotected sexual intercourse.

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Is male infertility a widespread problem?

Male infertility is a relatively common condition, affecting approximately 7% of men in the general population. It is estimated that male infertility is a contributing factor in about 30% of infertility cases, with female infertility being the primary factor in about 40% of cases. In about 20% of cases, both male and female factors contribute to infertility, while the remaining 10% of cases are unexplained.

Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples of reproductive age, and male infertility is a significant contributing factor in many cases. While the prevalence of male infertility varies depending on the population and study, it is clear that it is a relatively common condition that can impact a significant number of couples trying to conceive.

It’s important to note that male infertility does not necessarily mean that a man is completely infertile or unable to father a child. With appropriate medical care and interventions, many men with male infertility are able to achieve successful pregnancies and become fathers

Males more likely to have infertility

Infertility in males can affect men of any age, race, or ethnicity, and there are many different factors that can contribute to male infertility. However, certain groups of men may be at higher risk for infertility than others.

Some factors that may increase the likelihood of male infertility include:

Age: As men age, the quality and quantity of their sperm may decline, which can make it more difficult to achieve a successful pregnancy.

Lifestyle factors: Certain lifestyle habits, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drug use, and exposure to environmental toxins, can all negatively affect male fertility.

Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and sexually transmitted infections, can all affect male fertility.

Genetic factors: Some genetic conditions, such as Klinefelter syndrome and Y chromosome deletions, can affect male fertility.

Testicular injury or surgery: Trauma or injury to the testicles or previous surgeries in the genital region can also increase the risk of male infertility.

Hormonal imbalances: Certain hormonal imbalances, such as low testosterone or thyroid hormone levels, can also affect male fertility.

It’s important to note that while some men may be at higher risk for infertility than others, any man can experience fertility problems. If you are concerned about your fertility, it’s important to speak with a healthcare provider to discuss any potential risk factors or underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to your infertility.

Causes of male infertility

There are various causes of male infertility, which can involve problems with sperm production, sperm quality, or sperm delivery. Some common causes of male infertility include:

1. Sperm production issues:

This can be due to hormonal imbalances, genetic factors, testicular injury, or certain medical conditions that affect the testicles, such as cryptorchidism (undescended testicles), testicular cancer, or orchitis (inflammation of the testicles).

2. Sperm quality issues:

This can involve abnormalities in sperm shape, size, or motility (ability to move). This can affect the sperm’s ability to fertilize an egg. Poor sperm quality can be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle factors (such as smoking or excessive alcohol use), certain medications or treatments, and environmental factors (such as exposure to toxins or radiation).

3. Sperm delivery issues:

This can be caused by blockages or obstructions in the male reproductive tract, which can prevent sperm from being ejaculated during ejaculation. Examples of sperm delivery issues include vasectomy (surgical sterilization), ejaculatory duct obstructions, congenital absence of the vas deferens (CAVD), and retrograde ejaculation (when semen is released into the bladder instead of through the penis).

4. Hormonal imbalances:

Hormonal imbalances, such as low testosterone levels or thyroid disorders, can affect sperm production and function, leading to male infertility.

5. Genetic factors:

Certain genetic conditions, such as Klinefelter syndrome, Y chromosome deletions, and cystic fibrosis, can also impact male fertility.

6. Lifestyle factors:

Unhealthy lifestyle habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol or drug use, poor nutrition, and sedentary behavior can also negatively affect male fertility.

7. Medical conditions:

Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and autoimmune disorders, can affect male fertility.

8. Environmental factors:

Exposure to environmental toxins, radiation, and occupational hazards (such as exposure to chemicals, heavy metals, or high heat) can also impair male fertility.

It’s important to note that male infertility can often have multiple contributing factors, and a comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare provider is necessary to determine the underlying cause(s) of infertility in each individual case. Treatment options for male infertility depend on the specific cause(s) and may include medication, lifestyle changes, surgery, or assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Symptoms of male infertility

The symptom is the inability to conceive. But it’s far harder to put into words the mental and emotional toll that infertility takes on a couple trying to have a family. Many couples give their undivided attention to trying to start a family. Depression, loss, sadness, feelings of inadequacy, and failure are just as frequent in men as they are in women who are trying to conceive.

A therapist or psychiatrist who has expertise with infertility difficulties may be able to help individuals or couples who are experiencing any of these emotions. Providers like these can help you cope with the problem honestly and offer support throughout your therapy.

How male infertility is evaluated and diagnosed

A thorough physical examination is the first step in the diagnosis to ascertain your general health and spot any medical issues that may have an influence on your fertility. Your healthcare professional may ask you and your partner questions about your sexual preferences. The next course of action may be to undergo testing to determine the cause of infertility if the physical examination and medical history fail to reveal any causes for your failure to conceive.

Other Tests Taken are:

1. Semen analysis:

A semen analysis is typically the first test performed to assess male fertility. This test involves examining a sample of the man’s semen under a microscope to evaluate the quantity, quality, and motility (movement) of the sperm.

2. Hormone testing:

Blood tests may be performed to measure hormone levels, such as testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin. Hormone imbalances can affect sperm production and quality.

3. Genetic testing:

Genetic testing may be recommended to identify any underlying genetic conditions that may be contributing to male infertility.

4. Ultrasound:

An ultrasound may be performed to evaluate the male reproductive organs, including the testicles, epididymis, and vas deferens.

5. Testicular biopsy:

In some cases, a biopsy of the testicular tissue may be performed to evaluate sperm production and assess for any blockages or abnormalities.

6. Post-ejaculation urine analysis:

This test involves analyzing a sample of the man’s urine after ejaculation to determine if sperm are present. If sperm are present in the urine, it may suggest retrograde ejaculation.

7. Immunobead test:

This test is used to identify the presence of anti-sperm antibodies in the male’s semen or blood. These antibodies can interfere with sperm function and fertilization.

8. Urinalysis and STI testing:

Urinalysis and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be performed to rule out any infections or other conditions that may be contributing to male infertility.

The specific tests performed may vary depending on the individual case, and a healthcare provider will work with the patient to determine which tests are appropriate based on their medical history, symptoms, and other factors.

Treatments for Male Infertility

There are now more treatment options available for male infertility because of contemporary technology and procedures. The following therapies may be used, depending on the reason for infertility:


  • Hormone treatment to boost testosterone levels.

Changes in lifestyle:

  • Keep your weight within a healthy range.
  • Give up smoking.
  • Give up drinking.
  • Abandon marijuana use.
  • Stop using drugs recreationally.


1. Varicocelectomy:

A varicocele is a dilation of the veins within the scrotum, which can interfere with sperm production and quality. Varicocelectomy is a surgical procedure that involves tying off or removing the affected veins to improve blood flow and reduce the risk of infertility.

2. Vasectomy reversal:

The term vasectomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or blocking the vas deferens, which prevents sperm from being ejaculated during ejaculation. Vasectomy reversal is a surgical procedure that involves reconnecting the vas deferens to restore sperm flow and improve the chances of pregnancy.

3. Epididymovasostomy:

This is a surgical procedure that involves bypassing a blockage in the vas deferens by connecting the epididymis (the tube that carries sperm from the testicles to the vas deferens) directly to the vas deferens.

4. Transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct (TURED):

TURED is a surgical procedure that involves removing or opening up blockages in the ejaculatory ducts to improve the flow of semen and increase the chances of pregnancy.

5. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE):

TESE is a surgical procedure that involves removing a small sample of testicular tissue and extracting sperm from it. This procedure is typically performed in cases where there is no sperm present in the semen due to a blockage or other issue.

It’s important to note that not all cases of male infertility can be treated with surgery. And the specific procedure recommended will depend on the underlying cause and individual case. A healthcare provider will work with the patient to determine the most appropriate treatment


In conclusion, infertility in males is a common condition that can arise from a variety of factors. These include hormonal imbalances, genetic conditions, and lifestyle factors. It can have a significant impact on a couple’s ability to conceive a child.

Lifestyle modifications, medications, assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and surgery are possible treatments

With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of male infertility can be successfully managed. And couples can achieve their goal of starting or growing their family.


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